Saturday, May 23, 2020

Patriarchy - Definition in the Study of Sociology

Definition: A patriarchy is a social system in which family systems or entire societies are organized around the idea of father-rule, where males are the primary authority figures.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Death Of Michael Brown - 1585 Words

In the summer of 2014, 18-year-old Michael Brown was fatally shot by Ferguson police officer Darren Wilson. After the shooting, there had been conflicting reports by police and eyewitnesses about what exactly happened. Officer Wilson insist Brown was confrontational throughout the encounter, while eyewitnesses say Brown has his hands up trying to surrender before he was shot and killed. Following the Grand jury’s decision not to indict officer Wilson over the shooting of Michael Brown and similar cases of officer-involved shootings and brutality such as the death of Eric Garden in Staten Island, New York, politicians, family advocates, civil rights activists, and law enforcement officials have called for police across the country to adopt the use of body-worm cameras. Although there are many who feel police body cameras present a challenge to privacy and safety issues for both cops and civilians, by recording police-citizen encounters, it increases transparency and accountabi lity of officers and the video recorded by body cams protect any false accusations, police misconduct, officials can get clear evidence of what happened instead of relying on hearsay. In May of 2015, the Department of Justice and President Obama announced a $20 million dollar Body-Worn Camera (BWC) Pilot Partnership Program to respond to law enforcement and to the communities they serve. The proposal called to purchase 50,000 body-worn cameras to be use by forShow MoreRelatedThe Death Of Michael Brown823 Words   |  4 PagesSince these events, however, law enforcement body cameras have been the talk of the nation. With regards to the case concerning the death of Michael Brown, many individuals across the country sternly believe that if there had been actual footage of the shooting that day, Officer Wilson would have been indicted for his actions. With that said, since this specific incident, 30 out of 54 Ferguson police officers have actually began wearing body cameras (Ponsi). Some proponents argue that body camerasRead MoreThe Case Of Michael Brown s Death1102 Words   |  5 PagesOn August 14, 2014, the infamous case of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, took place. A police officer shot an unarmed black teenager after an incident which was clouded in unclear details. At first, no one really knew whether the officer had been in the right to shoot Brown, or what the circumstances were for either side of the incident. However, eventually, the details started to not matter. The events around Michael Brown’s case became the spark that ignited a nationwide movement to fightRead MoreThe Death Of Michael Brown And The Charleston Shooting810 Words   |  4 PagesHave you been watching the news lately? What has taken place around the world? Have you heard about the death of Michael Brown and the Charleston shooting? Do you think African American has been targeted by policemen? How you feel about the African American response? Social network is racing with ridiculous stories of white on black crime. African American are being targeted all around the world. The tension has increased as the time has pass by. Police men are thought to save and protect all ofRead MorePolice Misconduct And The Shooting Death Of Michael Brown861 Words   |  4 Pagesshootings. One major events that drew national attention, caused problems, and put strains on police-community relations involved the shooting death of Michael Brown. On August 9, 2014 Michael Brown, an unarmed black teen male, was shot multiple times by Officer Darren Wilson, a white Ferguson, Missouri police officer. The shooting death of Michael Brown brought about days of public protest and outrage. When the St. Louis County prosecutor refused to bring charges and announced that a grand juryRead MoreMichael Brown And The Police Officer1095 Words   |  5 PagesFerguson, Missouri, an 18 year old man named Michael Brown was shot ten times and killed by a police officer. The police officer’s name is Darren Wilson. He was 28 year s old at the time this tragic even took place. Many Americans, both black and white believe that officer Wilson is guilty of first degree murder when he shot Michael Brown, and other Americans believe he acted in self-defense. Because of the fact that the officer is white and Michael Brown was black, the case has stirred up plenty ofRead MorePolice Brutality Of African Americans1405 Words   |  6 PagesIn recent years police brutality towards African Americans has increased. This violence has resulted in riots across the United States. The August 2014 death of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri many Americans, some who are former Civil Rights activists, have spoken out against police brutality. Black Lives Matter states that the movement’s goal is to bring justice to the present unjust police killings of African Americans. Looking at prior cases of brutality and its connection to racial profilingRead MoreRacial Hierarchy Of Ferguson Shooting Incident1267 Words   |  6 PagesOn August 9th, 2014, Michael Brown, an innocent young black teenager was murdered in Ferguson, Missouri by Darren Wilson, a white police officer. Since the dashboard cameras are not installed in Ferguson police cars, the clear evidence of what happened is still unclear. But based on the testament of Brown’s friend Johnson who was walking with Brown, they were ordered to move off the street onto sidewalks by Wilson driving a police car, and there were struggles between Michael and Wilson through theRead MoreRacism : The Black Lives Matter1202 Words   |  5 Pagescontaining many unnecessary black deaths. A article states that, #BlackLivesMatter was created in 2012 after Trayvon Martin s murderer, George Zimmerman, was acquitted for his crime, and dead 17-year old Trayvon was posthumously placed on trial for his own murder. (â€Å"Black Lives Matter†). Black Lives Matter began with multiple shootings, one of which was the killing of Michael Brown. Brown was walking down the street with a friend when he was shot to death by a Ferguson police officerRead MoreWe See Black Americans Losing Their Life1320 Words   |  6 Pagesto big a hot topic in today’s world. Within the United States alone, bizarre incidents are almost commonplace. In a recent article found in the CNN Library archives ,there was a lot of disagreement about who was to blame in the tragic shooting death of seventeen year old - Trayvon Benjamin Martin who was merely visiting his father in a gated community and was subsequently shot and killed - the only real reason being because of fear and ignorance. George Zimmerman was the self-appointed executioner;Read MoreAnalysis Of The Henry Jr. From Easton, Ma, And The New York Police Officer1472 Words   |  6 PagesFour years ago Danroy â€Å"DJ† henry Jr. from Easton, Ma, was killed by a New york poli ce officer. Since then the nation seen the death of trayvon Martin who was kiilled by a neighborhood watch volunteer and Michael brown who recently just got killed by a policeman in Ferguson, Missoury. However, the story of Eric Garner is shown to be an ongoing issue between Eric Garner and the New york police department weeks prior to the incident. In the video, Garner is seeing expressing to the policeman that he

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Classic Management Free Essays

Some of these are listed below: asking questions about text or case material 0 making observation about text or case material 0 making insightful comments or asking probing questions during tutorials or at appropriate time during case presentations; and 0 relating assigned material to other areas of study or current events in the pacific region. 8. 0 All attendance will be taken in tutorial classes. We will write a custom essay sample on Classic Management or any similar topic only for you Order Now The attendance and participation will be assessed from week 3-14. University’s tutorial attendance policy of is applied. Students must attain at least a minimum of 60 percent tutorial attendance to pass this course. Failure to meet this requirement meaner failing the course. 9. 0 Marking Criteria for Case Study Presentation Criteria Visual Aid (projector, charts etc) Presentation (speaking style, clarity, eye contact, confidence, timing) Understanding, Familiarity with Content ; Analysis Question/Discussion/Linking Total Marks Allocated (in %) 1 % Please note: presentations will be assessed as a group overall; not individual ember presentations. Whatever mark is given is group based so everyone in the group gets the same mark. Time Limit Breakdown: Presentation time for all the group members- 15 minutes Question/Discussion time- 5 minutes Tutor’s remarks – 5 minutes AMIGO Tutorial outline Semester 2 2013 3 Table 1: Tutorial Case Study/Class discussion activities Introductory session: 0 emphasizing on the important issues raised in the course outline 0 Students to select their tutorial group (3 or 4 members in a group) discussion on how to analyze case studies to prepare students for presentation 0 The assessment criteria for case study presentation Discussion Questions: 1 . Discuss the major developments that characterize current global economy and the challenges these impose on the organizations and industrial sectors. 2. Discuss some of the organization transitions that set the context for the study of management today Date ****III case studies are from the recommended textbook**** Chapter Tutorial case study/ Discussion question 1 4 12-16 August Chapters 23 5 19-23 August Chapter 4 6 26-30 August -rest 1 : Day: Friday Date: 30 Gag 2013 Time: 9. 00-9. 50 a. M. Room: 014-025 coverage: Chapter 1-4 and 6 Format: Section A: Multiple choice Section B: True/False Section C: Short to paragraph-long questions Total % mark: 10% of the total course work. Chapter 6 Discussion Questions: 1 . Explain the major elements of an organization’s general environment 2. What elements in the specific environment should organization concentrate on in order to sustain competitive advantage Chapter 3: 1 . Explain in detail the three environments for managerial decision making and problem solving 2. People display three different approaches or ‘styles’ in the way they deal with problem situations. Case Study: â€Å"Informing Panasonic† up 82-84 of the textbook Discussion Questions: 1 . What key ideas did classical approaches, behavioral (or human resource) approaches, and quantitative approaches contribute to management thinking? Case Study: â€Å"Management in practice at Bee Change Hang (BCC)† up 105-106 Discussion Questions: 1 . Identify the alternative views of Athenian behavior and briefly describe the main emphasis of each view 2. Explain the concepts of cultural relativism and universalism. What implications do these concepts have for international business operations? 3. What is an ethical dilemma? Describe some of the possible sources of ethical dilemmas. Case study: â€Å"Astray – the ‘Enron’ of India† 7 2- 6 September Chapter organization? 2. How can participation be used in organization? 3. What resistance might it potentially create and how would you deal with this? Given that controls are essential to any organizations operational success, explain the steps involved in the control process. Case study: â€Å"Tallest makes the wrong call† up 183-184 OR â€Å"The airline industry-attempting to control turbulence† up 204-206 4. 9- 13 September 8 16-20 September MID SEMESTER BREAK Chapter 9 Discussion Questions: 1 . What is SOOT analysis? Discuss the types of issues and questions that should be dealt with when conducting a SOOT analysis 2. Discuss the advantages of performing a SOOT analysis 3. Compare and contrast different strategies for: (a) growth and diversification; and (b) retrenchment 4. Explain the basic variables contained in Porter’s generic strategies model and the BCC matrix Case study: â€Å"Managing strategy and culture at Boost Juice Bars† up 238-239 Discussion Questions: 1 . What is the purpose of organizational design? 2. Discuss the difference between bureaucratic designs and adaptive designs Case study: â€Å"Leno- hanging structure to follow strategy’ up 298-299 9 23-27 September Group Assignment: Due: Friday 27 September at 4. 00 p. M. All group assignment must be uploaded on model. Chapter 1 1 10 30 Swept – 4 October -rest 2: Day: Friday Date: 4 October 2013 Time: 9. 0 – 9. 50 a. M. Venue: Room 014-025 Coverage: Chapter 7-9, and 11 Format: Section A: Multiple choice Section B: True/ False Section C: Short to paragraph-long questions Total % mark: 10% of the total course work. 7-11 October Discussion Questions: 1 . What is human resource management and what role does it plays in organizations? 2. What steps should a m anager take in helping a new employee fit into the work environment in a way that furthers his/her development and performance potential? 3. What options would you, as a manager, have in maintaining a qualified workforce? Comment briefly on the options discussed in the text. Case study: NO Case study 11 Chapter 13 12 14-18 October Chapter 14 Discussion Questions 1 . Explain the sources of position power and personal power used by managers to influence the behavior of other people Explain the sources of position power and 2. What is leadership style? Explain how concern for task and concern for people are related to leadership style. 3. Discuss the Fiddler, Hershey and Blanchard, House, and Broom-Ago contingency models of leadership. What guidance does each contingency model provide for leaders? Case study: â€Å"Leadership at ISM† up 361-362 Discussion Question: 1 . Briefly describe Mason’s hierarchy of needs theory, Alder’s ERG theory, Herrings tobacco theory, and Miscellany’s acquired needs theory. 2. Discuss goal setting theory and how it relates to managing for motivation. 13 21-25 October Chapter 15 16 14 Chapter 17 Describe the key concepts in the expectancy theory of motivation. How do these concepts explain the level of motivation that a person may display at work? Case duty: â€Å"Google: one of Australia’s best places to work† pappy-390 Discussion Questions 1 . Using the contributions and inducements that are referred to in the psychological contract between the individual and organization, explain the nature of the relationship that you have had with an organization for which you now work or have worked in the past. 2. Explain the role that Job design plays in worker satisfaction and performance. Chapter 16: 3. How do teams contribute to organizations? 4. Briefly describe the stages of group/team development. Think of a group or team in which you have held or currently hold membership. Explain how he stages of group/team development can be applied to this example group or team. How to cite Classic Management, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Rubbish Collection and Disposal Garbage †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Rubbish Collection And Disposal? Answer: Introducation The rubbish is the garbage hoarded up in residential area that has to be collected to keep the surrounding environment clean and neat so that the disease can be kept away (COC, 2017). The residential rubbish may be vegetable peels, rotten fruits, used office ground, soap cover, empty bottles, floor sweeping dust, used mop cloths and others. Rubbish cane or bag is put in the residential area, in which the residents dispose their household rubbish and garbage. The rubbish begs then collected by the municipalities and it disposes it far away of the city (OConnor, 2010). The collection and disposal process of rubbish includes different kinds of cost such as landfill cost, container cost, cost of towing van, pickup and dumpster rent, taxes and regulations, cost of rubbish bags, cost of rubbish collectors, and others. However, it can be said that it includes labor cost, equipments cost, administration cost, land, recycling cost and others (NCC, 2017). Along with this, the cost of equipments and tools are included in cost structure of collecting and disposing of the rubbish. The rubbish bags are kept at the residential area, which are collected and disposed every week (WM, 2012). Apart from this, the cost of labor also adds to the total cost of the collection and disposal of the rubbish from the residential areas. The labor is required for driving the wastage conveying vehicles, for loading the rubbish bags on van and truck, and recycling the wastage for reducing the wastage and for ensuring the healthy environment (HCC, 2017). Disposal is the process o f getting the rubbish out of the city and hoarding it up and recycling it for reducing the soil pollution and other environmental issues. Along with this, the other cost elements in the collection and disposal of the wastage or rubbish from the residential area include basket or container, tricycle, compost pit, segregation shed, uniform, safety measures such as gloves, tools and equipment, supervisor salary, repair and maintenance, sanitation workers and others. All these cost have to include as these costs are basic cost elements in the collection and disposal of rubbish from the residential addresses. However, the cost in collection and disposal of the rubbish from residential area can be calculated easily. First of all, all the requirements for collecting and disposing the rubbish have to be indentified such as container, rubbish bags, labor, equipments and tools, vehicles, and others. After identifying the requirement, the cost for each requirement is assigned for per week because the rubbish is collected from the residential areas each week. The units of labor, containers, bags, and other requirement are multipli ed by the cost per unit. Then this cost is multiplied by the number of weeks in a year for identifying the total cost for a year in collecting and disposing the rubbish. Difficulties in calculation of cost: Number of difficulties would occur in estimation and calculation of the cost in collecting and disposing the rubbish from the residential area. It is very hard to identify the requirement of the quantity of the rubbish per week in different residential areas which in turn cause difficulty in determining the requirement of the containers and rubbish bags. For this, the number of families and houses in the residential areas are identified and then the quantity of the rubbish per week is estimated. This helped in finding out the requirements in terms of number of containers, number of rubbish bags, number of vehicles for carrying the containers, and others. Furthermore, after finding the requirement the cost per unit has to be identified therefore it is required to find the ongoing labor rate in the city or town. The minimum labor rate has been used here for this. The number of people required for collecting and disposing the rubbish are then multiplied by the labor rate for identifying the labor cost. The cost included in the collection and disposal of the wastage from the residential areas are realistic to a good extent. Along with this, the calculation of the cost in collection and disposal of the rubbish is too long and tidy as first the cost per unit has been indentified, then the cost per week has been identified and then the total cost for one year has been identified. This caused the uncomfortable in calculation of the cost. Along with this, it was very hard to find the going on rate of labor, rubbish bags, and others tools and equipments as the price for this requirement vary at different places. Then the average price for the products or services was calculated and then the cost per unit was calculated. Lastly, it can be said that the cost calculated is exact realistic to the great extent. Rates for services of ABC Council Yes, there should be fixed fee for the services provided by the ABC Council for collecting the rubbish from the residential areas. The fee should be determined considering the cost of service. This is because the cost burden on the ABC council will be transferred to the people living in residential areas and gaining services. This also will improve the service of the ABC Council. Along with this, the fee for the services should be determined according to the weight of the waste and cost of service. The fee and rate of the services should be determined based activity cost this helps in determining the minimum fee criteria. The fees and charges for the services can ensure the compliance with the environmental regulations and ethical codes in society. This will make the people comply with the ethical codes. This will also generate capital for the Council that it can use further for investing in the more containers, equipments, vehicles, and measures and in recycling of the rubbish or wa stage. The raised fund may be used in the welfare of the society by reducing the rubbish collection period that may help in reducing the pollution and other diseases due to solid waste and rubbish. The management accountant is also known as corporate accountant. The management accountant is the person who aids in managerial planning and decision making by providing the information to the management about the financial transactions and accounting administration (Sunami, 2013). The management accountants are responsible of planning, preparing the budget, managing the risk, developing strategies and making decision in the organization (Lambert and Sponem, 2012). Therefore, the management accountant finds out the opportunities in market, analyze them to identify and mange the risk, arrange the finance for effective operation, and monitor the compliance. The main functions of the management accounts include the budgeting, tax handling, assets management, and helping in strategic decision making (Ahid and Augustine, 2012). Role of management accountants towards their employer, people and company For employer Management accounting becomes an integral part of the business. It guides and advises management at every step of the business. The role of management accountant gives the end number of benefits to the company. The accountants is responsible for the financial security, handling all financial matters and thus helps company to drive the business overall management strategy. Management accountants focus on the financial planning, cost accounting and management issues. The below given are the major responsibilities of the management accountants regarding the company. Budgeting- An accountants make the budget for the company regarding their overall key activities in the different functional departments. They forecast the overall budgeting and report to the senior managers so that they can take strategic operational decisions. Budget indicates the financial plan of the company using quantitative figures and forecasted the needs of the individual departments and allocated the budget as per their programs and schedules. Moreover, allocation in budgets creates the conflicts among the departments and it results the loss of the productivity. Sometimes, the management accountants produced the special budgets as per the requirement of the special needs. Most of the time the accountants produced the budgets for the company which includes master, sales, production, material, labor and cash budgets. Handling Taxes- They analyses the taxation part of the income through various rules like GAAP, IFRS and IAS and calculate the taxable amount from the income. Decision making- The management accountant is responsible for the strategic decisions in the company among various alternatives. For e.g. In a manufacturing unit, the responsibility of the management accountant is to determine the best product to manufacture that is more profitable to the company and the price charge to the customers. Moreover, the management accountant compares the price of the product with the cost associated with the manufacturing of the product. Managerial accountants perform cost analysis for certain products and divisions which include variable costs and fixed costs. The managerial accountant gives the direct information to the production manager which helps to take the production decisions in the future. Managerial accountants perform the cost analysis of the products and services of different divisions which include variable and fixed costs. On the basis of cost predictions, top management would forecast and develop the fruitful strategy for the company. For profession The management accountants are responsible to follow the ethical practices in their accounting. They have the social contract towards the society and their profession. They are bound to follow the codes, standards and regulations in their practices. They are the assets of the organization and business and they are socially bound towards their practices and provide the fair information to their users. They tend to responsible to maintain the integrity of the profession by provides good financial reporting to its users. They are responsible to protect the interest of the public regarding the accountancy profession. As a professional they are seen to be a privileged position in the society and they are dealing with all the issues that are related to the public interest. Accountants not only maintain the high standards in their profession but also help the organizations to act ethically. Moreover, it provides the professional advice to the small business owners to follow the management accounting process in their business operations to increase the reliability of the profession. They are responsible to indicate the major challenges and benefits to the small business owners and provide the best solutions to the public to follow these practices. The management accountants work with the small business owners and emphasize them to follow the specific responsibilities regarding their profession. This professional information benefits the owners to take strategic decision in the long term. For People Management accountants provide the fair information regarding the employees productivity in the company. They also responsible to adapt the fair accounting standards and provides benefits to the employees of the company. Moreover, the accountants are responsible to disclose all the information to the stakeholders of the company so that they can use the information for their benefits. They are solely responsible to protect the interest of the people towards accounting practices. They are responsible to meeting the expectations of the customers as well as it helps the lower level of management to handle the basic accounting tasks such as recording income and expenses, track tax liabilities and make reliable financial statements on the basis of these data. They adopt the social sustainability practices in their accounting and conditions monitors the financial activities at each functional level to maintain the viability of the profession and develop the trust among the people internally and externally. The public accountants emphasize many big organizations to fulfill the corporate social responsibilities and sustainability practices in their profession to the benefit of the public. They are solely responsible on trust of the public. This profession is driven by the public trusts and they lose their legitimacy if there is no public trust is exists between them. It is important for any public accountant to work for the benefit of the public and ensures that their trust and interest would not be down towards this profession Society An accountant with the help of its expertise, education, training and analytical skills provides multiple benefits to the growing society needs. The accountants provide justice in the matter of the taxation, fraud, financial policies, budgeting and even economic principles. An accountant handles the taxation matters of the business or a person so that they run the business smoothly in the society without bearing any unnecessary tax liabilities. Moreover most of the accountants provide the consultants services to the society regarding their jobs or ne startups. They analyse the business structure and reporting standards and plan the internal operations and control functions. On the basis of business structure, it gives the idea to the individual for long term planning. They collect, analyse, interpret and present all the important information that is beneficial for the management. They ensure the society regarding any fraud and misrepresentations done by the organizations and provide services in the areas of costing, budgeting and evaluation of the new investments, disinvestments and working capital management. The accountants also responsible to provide effective accounting information to the various levels like political, social, economical and legal. On the basis of information it assists society to make informed decisions in relation the effective allocation of resources. The measurement of accounting information at all levels of the society. The measurement of accounting profits and costs influenced on the jobs, taxes and prices. Ethical conflicts due to imbalance between responsibilities of MA: The management accountant cannot look at the interest of one part only but have to consider the interest of the all the parties at one time. However, the management accountant should consider the ethical principle and codes while performing his or her duty. The management account should perform his responsibilities regarding profession to ensure the compliance with relevant law, regulation, and knowledge and skills (Finch, 2016). Along with this, it is the ethical responsibility of the management accountants to provide clear, accurate, and reliable information. The imbalance in the responsibilities may cause the ethical conflicts. For example, if the management accountant considers the interest of the employer only and does not consider the interest of the shareholders in company, then it may lead ethical conflicts (Accountingverse, 2017). And the management accountant reports the information in annual report favorable to the employer but beguile the shareholders. This may cause ethi cal conflicts in responsibilities of the accountant to people and employer. Apart from this, for example the management accountant is obliged to ensure the confidentiality of the information. But to keep the interest of the shareholders, it is also responsibility of the management accountant to provide the shareholders with accurate and clear information (Finch, 2016). This may cause the ethical conflicts between responsibility of confidentiality of information to employers and responsibility of the accurate and clear information to the shareholders. Furthermore, the responsibility of administering tax policy and procedure also conflicts with responsibility to compliance with government rules and regulations. Therefore, for example, the management accountant is responsible for managing the income and tax policy so that tax can be reduced but this manipulation and responsibility may conflict with responsibility of compliance with regulation of accurate and complete tax payment (Accountingverse, 2017). Furthermore, for example if the management account ignores small mistakes in the accounts of the company and approve it then this action of the management can cause conflicts with the responsibility of honesty and fairness in accounts. This negligence behavior of the management accountant may affect the interest of people uses the accounting information of the company. References: Accountingverse (2017). Standards of ethical conduct for management accountant. Retrieved from Ahid, M. and Augustine, A. (2012). The Roles and Responsibilities of Management Accountants inthe Era of Globalization. Retrieved from Aswathappa, K., (2013).Human resource management: Text and cases.USA: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. COC, (2017). Residential trash collection. Retrieved from Drucker, P., (2013).People and performance.UK: Routledge. Finch, C. (2016). Code of conduct for management accountant. Retrieved from Grunig, L.A., (2013). Toward the philosophy of public relations.Rhetorical and critical approaches to public relations,65-91. HCC, (2017). Disposing of your rubbish. Retrieved from Lambert, C., Sponem, S. (2012). Roles, authority and involvement of the management accounting function: a multiple case-study perspective.European Accounting Review,21(3), 565-589. NCC (2017). Rubbish collection and disposal. Retrieved from OConnor, J. (2010). The real cost of managing societys trash. Retrieved from Snell, S.A., Morris, S.S. and Bohlander, G.W., (2015).Managing human resources. Ontario: Nelson Education. Storey, J., (2014).New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals).UK: Routledge. Sunarni, C. W. (2013). Management accounting practices and the role of management accountant: Evidence from manufacturing companies throughout Yogyakarta, Indonesia.Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research,2(2), 616. Weiss, J.W. (2014).Business ethics: A stakeholder and issues management approach.USA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. WM, (2012). Container tips. Retrieved from

Friday, March 6, 2020

Lee v. Weisman (1992) - Prayers at School Graduation

Lee v. Weisman (1992) - Prayers at School Graduation How far can a school go when it comes to accommodating the religious beliefs of students and parents? Many schools have traditionally had someone offer prayers at important school events like graduations, but critics argue that such prayers violate the separation of church and state because they mean that the government is endorsing particular religious beliefs. Fast Facts: Lee v. Weisman Case Argued: November 6, 1991Decision Issued:Â  June 24, 1992Petitioner: Robert E. LeeRespondent: Daniel WeismanKey Question: Did letting a religious officiant offer a prayer during an official public school ceremony violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment?Majority Decision: Justices Blackmun, O’Connor, Stevens, Kennedy, and SouterDissenting: Justices Rehnquist, White, Scalia, and ThomasRuling: Since the graduation was state-sponsored, the prayer was deemed in violation of the Establishment Clause. Background Information Nathan Bishop Middle School in Providence, RI, traditionally invited clergy to offer prayers at graduation ceremonies. Deborah Weisman and her father, Daniel, both of whom were Jewish, challenged the policy and filed suit in court, arguing that the school had turned itself into a house of worship after a rabbis benediction. At the disputed graduation, the rabbi thanked for: ...the legacy of America where diversity is celebrated...O God, we are grateful for the learning which we have celebrated on this joyous commencement...we give thanks to you, Lord, for keeping us alive, sustaining us and allowing us to reach this special, happy occasion. With help from the Bush administration, the school board argued that the prayer was not an endorsement of religion or of any religious doctrines. The Weismans were supported by the ACLU and other groups interested in religious freedom. Both the district and appellate courts agreed with the Weismans and found the practice of offering prayers unconstitutional. The case was appealed to the Supreme Court where the administration asked it to overturn the three-prong test created in Lemon v. Kurtzman. Court Decision Arguments were made on November 6th, 1991. On June 24th 1992, the Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that prayers during school graduation violate the Establishment Clause. Writing for the majority, Justice Kennedy found that officially sanctioned prayers in public schools were so clearly a violation that the case could be decided without relying upon the Courts earlier church/separation precedents, thus avoiding questions about the Lemon Test entirely. According to Kennedy, the governments involvement in religious exercises at graduation is pervasive and unavoidable. The state creates both public and peer pressure on students to rise for and remain silent during prayers. State officials not only determine that an invocation and benediction should be given, but also select the religious participant and provide guidelines for the content of the nonsectarian prayers. The Court viewed this extensive state participation as coercive in the elementary and secondary school settings. The state in effect required participation in a religious exercise, since the option of not attending one of lifes most significant occasions was no real choice. At a minimum, the Court concluded, the Establishment Clause guarantees that government may not coerce anyone to support or participate in religion or its exercise. What to most believers may seem nothing more than a reasonable request that the nonbeliever respect their religious practices, in a school context may appear to the nonbeliever or dissenter to be an attempt to employ the machinery of the State to enforce a religious orthodoxy. Although a person could stand for the prayer merely as a sign of respect for others, such an action could justifiably be interpreted as accepting the message. The control held by teachers and principals over the students actions forces those graduating to submit to the standards of behavior. This is sometimes referred to as the Coercion Test. Graduation prayers fail this test because they put impermissible pressure on students to participate in, or at least show respect for, the prayer. In a dictum, Justice Kennedy wrote about the importance of the separating church and state: The First Amendments Religion Clauses mean that religious beliefs and religious expression are too precious to be either proscribed or prescribed by the State. The design of the Constitution is that preservation and transmission of religious beliefs and worship is a responsibility and a choice committed to the private sphere, which itself is promised freedom to pursue that mission. [...] A state-created orthodoxy puts at grave risk that freedom of belief and conscience which are the sole assurance that religious faith is real, not imposed. In a sarcastic and scathing dissent, Justice Scalia said that prayer is a common and accepted practice of bringing people together and the government should be allowed to promote it. The fact that prayers can cause division for those who disagree with or are even offended by the content simply wasnt relevant, as far as he was concerned. He also didnt bother to explain how sectarian prayers from one religion could unify people of many different religions, never mind people with no religion at all. Significance This decision failed to reverse the standards established by the Court in Lemon. Instead, this ruling extended the prohibition of school prayer to graduation ceremonies and refused to accept the idea that a student would not be harmed by standing during the prayer without sharing the message contained in the prayer.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Molecular Medicine Master Personal Statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Molecular Medicine Master - Personal Statement Example Based on the research and final project I am working on identifying a gene related to cholesterol disorder. I have studied biomedical studies and its incorporation into molecular medicine will enable me to clearly and concisely do my research in the stated field. Based on the level of education offered at your university, I wish to pursue masters in the field of molecular medicine as you produce only the best in the country. Based on my research methods and passion to identify and cure various diseases, I find myself suitable to learn and gain the necessary knowledge regarding molecular medicine. The developments faced in technology and the human genome projects have led to new ways of understanding and treating human diseases. The defects associated with single genes discoveries are very trivial and can be stopped and cured with man-month of efforts. My desire to understand various diseases like heart disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders and estimation of their threat to people, based on each individual’s genotype has made me want to study molecular medicine. In conclusion, my passion to understand various diseases and how to cure them has been my driving force to study molecular medicine. Making an impact in this field will be an advantage to me as I would like to discover medicines to cure various harmful diseases and hope you will find me liable and capable to undertake the molecular medicine masters in your university.